Turning Stitches (TS)
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There are several different nalbinding stitches, and some of them have been known in many places, and thus may have several names.
On this website I follow the grouping of stitches by Toini-Inkeri Kaukonen (1960), but I have also included some of the names which have been well-established abroad, ie outside Finland.
Here is an incomplete list of nalbinding stitches (link).
The 1st number means how many loops there are around thumb
the 2nd how many loops are picked up onto the needle, from front to back
the 3rd how many loops are picked up, from back to front, needle tip towards 3 o'clock
(except when "turn left"; then it is towards 9 o'clock)
Turning Stitch 1+1+turn (described in Stoltz's booklet)
Finnish Turning Stitch 2+2+turn, "Finnish Turning Stitch", Rautjärvi
Finnish Turning Stitch 2+2+turn, plaited edge, connection "under X", Parikkala
Finnish Turning Stitch 2+2+turn, F1, plaited edge (Kaukonen's article)
Finnish Turning Stitch 2+2+turn, plaited edge, M1 (Variant L; Westman)
Finnish Turning Stitch 2+4+turn, F1 or F2, Metsäpirtti 2B
Turning Stitch variant 2b, 2+turn right+2, Joutseno
Turning Stitch variant 2, 2+turn left+2, Joutseno, Antrea
Turning Stitch variant 2, 2+turn left+3, Karbenning
Turning Stitch variant 2, 1+turn left+1, Arboga
NEW 10/16 Turning Stitch variant 2, 1+turn left+3, F2, Näshulta
Turning Stitch variant 2, turn left+1 (my experiment)
Mordovian, under 4 + turn + through old turned st + under 2 + over 4
Mentioned in T-I Kaukonen's article (1960), there's a photo and a drawn diagram, but the connection stitch is not shown, and the written description is rather unclear.
In Stoltz's nalbinding booklet; the direction of turning is not specified:
Turning Stitch 1+turn (right or left?)
Turning Stitch 1+2+turn (right or left?) *)
Turning Stitch 1+3+turn (right or left?) **)
Turning Stitch 1+turn+2 (right or left?)
Turning Stitch 1+turn+3 (right or left?)
*) = if to left, this would actually be Russian Stitch 1+2+1 (Kitee Stitch)
**) = if to left, this would actually be Russian Stitch 1+3+1 (a nameless one)